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1. Testosterone

Interaction and synthesis of hormones in an organism

Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone ( androgen ) which has pronounced anabolic properties. It increases muscle mass and accelerates protein synthesis. Testosterone is secreted by Leydig cells of testes in men, in small amounts by ovaries in women, and by adrenal cortex in both sexes. It is the product of peripheral metabolism. Synthetic testosterone preparations are often used in bodybuilding.

1.1 Biological Activity

Testosterone itself has low biological activity and weakly binds to androgen receptor (actually it is a prohormone). Before binding to androgen receptors of a target cell it must be modified by 5α-reductase enzyme, which creates a biologically active form of testosterone - dihydrotestosterone.

2. The effects of testosterone

Interaction and synthesis of hormones in an organism
  • Increase of muscle mass
  • Testosterone is involved in the development of male genital organs and secondary sexual characters: deep voice, masculine facial features, adult male type of hair distribution, and so on.
  • It provides spermatogenesis and sexual behavior
  • It effects on nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism.
Interaction and synthesis of hormones in an organism

Side effects

  • Increase of blood pressure
  • Water accumulation (edema)
  • Masculinization
  • Aggression, irritability
  • Alopecia (hair loss)
  • Acne

2.1 Testosterone preparations

Nowadays the following preparations are produced:

  • Sustanon
  • Omnadren
  • Testosterone propionate
  • Testosterone phenylpropionate
  • Testosterone enanthate
  • Testosterone cypionate
  • Testosterone pills (Andriol, testosterone undecanoate)
  • Testosterone gel (Androgel, testime)
  • Methyltestosterone
  • Testosterone Suspension
  • Esters of testosterone and its derivatives
  • Steroid mixes

3. Interesting facts

French scientists have found that men who eat spicy food have higher levels of testosterone, therefore, increased sexual activity. The results of this study are represented in the journal “Physiology & Behavior”. [1]

4. See also

  • Anabolic steroids
  • Side effects of steroids and how to reduce the harm
  • Best courses of steroids
  • Insulin
  • Growth hormone
  • Gonadorelin

11. Links

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